A transducer with multiple piezoceramic rings vibrates at frequencies between 20 kHz and 80 kHz, allowing the medical device's scalpel blade to make tiny incisions with great precision.
Many piezoceramic elements are arranged inside a concave shell. By applying a high voltage, an ultrasonic wave is generated which can be directed at a site x to break up kidney stones or other fragments.
With the help of vibrations between 20 kHz and 80 kH, the piezoceramic rings of the transducer can remove calculus via the high vibration frequency of the tool.
Phacoemulsification, or cataract surgery, requires a transducer made of piezoceramics that generates vibrations between 28 kHz and 45 kHz to remove the clouded lens and restore vision.